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國際發聲 | 楊長風總設計師:進入全球服務新時代的北斗系統
來源:北斗網 發布時間:2022-01-22
  2022年1月14日,北斗衛星導航系統工程總設計師、中國工程院院士楊長風在《GPS WORLD》雜志發表文章《2022方向:進入全球服務新時代的北斗系統》,介紹了北斗系統目前的系統性能與服務、應用產業發展、國際合作情況,并展望了北斗系統的后續計劃。
  2022方向:進入全球服務新時代的北斗系統
  2020年,北斗三號全球衛星導航系統建成開通。2021年,北斗系統不斷提升性能、拓展應用、深化合作,持續、穩定、快速發展。
  一、系統性能與服務
  當前,北斗系統在軌運行服務衛星共45顆,包括15顆北斗二號衛星和30顆北斗三號衛星,聯合為用戶提供7種服務。具體包括:面向全球,提供定位導航授時、全球短報文通信和國際搜救3種服務;面向亞太地區,提供星基增強、地基增強、精密單點定位和區域短報文通信4種服務。
  系統開通服務一年多來,運行連續穩定,衛星可用性均值優于0.99、連續性均值優于0.999。定位導航授時服務,經全球連續監測評估系統實測,全球范圍水平定位精度約1.52米,垂直定位精度約2.64米(B1C信號單頻、95%置信度);測速精度優于0.1米/秒,授時精度優于20納秒,亞太區域精度更優。
  圖1 全球范圍可見北斗系統衛星數
上圖是2021年11月18日北斗時0:00,北斗系統全球范圍可見衛星數。其中,在亞洲太平洋的部分區域可見衛星數超過20顆(圖片及信息來源:www.csno-tarc.cn)
  全球短報文服務,通過14顆MEO衛星,已為授權用戶、低軌衛星提供試用服務,單次最大通信能力560比特,約40個漢字;國際搜救服務,通過6顆MEO衛星提供符合全球衛星搜救系統標準的406MHz前向報警服務(MEOSAR),以及通過24顆MEO和3顆IGSO衛星提供基于B2b信號的返向鏈路服務(RLS),目前已完成測試驗證,正在協調加入國際搜救衛星組織;星基增強服務,中國民用航空管理局正在組織開展星地一體化測試評估,定位精度、告警時間、完好性風險等指標滿足要求;地基增強服務,利用在中國范圍內建成的框架網基準站和區域網基準站,面向行業和大眾用戶提供實時厘米級、事后毫米級高精度服務;精密單點定位服務,通過3顆GEO衛星播發精密單點定位信號,實測水平定位精度0.24米,垂直定位精度0.41米(95%置信度),收斂時間少于20分鐘;區域短報文通信,短報文通信進入大眾手機已完成測試驗證,后續計劃將規?;瘧?。
  二、應用產業發展
  北斗規模應用已進入市場化、產業化、國際化發展的關鍵階段。2020年中國衛星導航與位置服務產業總體產值增速繼續增長,較2019年增長約16.9%,達到4033億元人民幣(約632億美元)?;A產品方面,支持北斗三號系統的北斗/GNSS基礎芯片、模塊、板卡、天線等關鍵技術全面突破,國外主流芯片全部支持北斗系統,建立實施北斗基礎產品認證檢測制度。大眾應用方面,北斗系統日益融入普通百姓的日常生活,正在成為智能手機、可穿戴設備等大眾消費產品定位功能標準配置。小米、華為、蘋果、三星等智能手機廠商均支持北斗系統。2021年前三季度,中國境內申請入網支持北斗定位的智能手機款型占比達到72.3%,出貨量占比達到93.5%。北斗地基增強功能已進入智能手機,可實現1米級高精度定位,正在中國多個城市開展車道級導航試點應用。行業應用方面,北斗系統已全面服務于交通運輸、公共安全、救災減災、農林牧漁等行業,加速融入電力、金融、通信等基礎設施。特別是在科技抗疫斗爭中,北斗精準定位,助力抗疫物資高效供應流轉。當前,基于北斗系統的土地確權、精準農業、智慧港口等解決方案已服務于亞洲、東歐、非洲等地各國經濟社會發展,北斗產品已在全球一半以上國家和地區得到應用。
  三、國際合作
  北斗始終堅持開放合作、資源共享的發展理念,積極務實開展國際交流與合作,為和平利用外層空間貢獻中國力量。
  雙邊方面,中俄衛星導航重大戰略合作項目委員會第八次會議于2021年10月召開,雙方聯合編制并簽署《2021至2025年中俄衛星導航領域合作路線圖》,為未來五年中俄衛星導航合作提供規劃指導;與阿根廷、南非簽署衛星導航領域合作文件,正式建立常態化合作機制。
  多邊方面,持續參與聯合國全球衛星導航系統國際委員會(ICG)系列活動,倡導在多邊場合下共商共促全球衛星導航事業。成功舉辦第一屆中非北斗合作論壇、第三屆中阿北斗合作論壇、第二屆中國-中亞北斗合作論壇以及迪拜世界博覽會“北斗日”主題活動,分享北斗系統建設發展成果。
  逐漸融入國際標準,持續推進北斗系統進入民航、海事、搜救衛星、移動通信、電工委員會等國際組織標準體系,多項支持北斗系統的國際標準先繼發布。中國政府目前已草擬提交國際民航組織的承諾函,承諾北斗系統將為全球民航用戶免費提供基本導航服務。國際航標協會正式發布包含北斗星基增強系統的標準,標志著全球海事用戶可據此開展北斗星基增強海事應用。國際移動通信第三代合作伙伴計劃已啟動北斗三號B2a、B3I新信號的標準化工作。國際電工委員會發布的全球海上遇險與安全系統應急示位標檢測標準中,將支持北斗接收機和北斗搜救服務。
  穩步推進法治建設,中國政府高度重視并全面推進衛星導航法治建設,基本形成以國家宏觀政策為主導、行業和地方政策法規為主體的北斗法律制度體系。積極推進《中華人民共和國衛星導航條例》立法進程,保障衛星產業健康、快速、持續發展。2021年5月,發布《北斗衛星導航系統法治建設報告》。
  四、后續計劃
  后續,北斗系統一方面將保證系統運行穩定,另一方面將抓好備份衛星研制,完成備份衛星生產、狀態優化和地面測試工作,根據需要發射性能更優的北斗三號備份衛星,進一步提高星座可靠性。秉承“中國的北斗、世界的北斗、一流的北斗”發展理念。弘揚“自主創新、開放融合、萬眾一心、追求卓越”的新時代北斗精神,服務全球,造福人類!
  作者:北斗衛星導航系統工程總設計師、中國工程院院士 楊長風
  英文全文如下:
  Directions 2022: BDS enters new era of global services

  Yang Changfeng is BeiDou’s Chief Architect. (Photo: BeiDou Navigation Satellite System)
  Construction of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS-3) has been completed. The system was formally commissioned on July 31, 2020. In 2021, BDS continued to improve performance, expand applications and deepen cooperation, and has achieved sustained, stable and rapid development.
  System Performance and Services
  Currently, 45 BDS satellites are operational in orbit — 15 BDS-2 satellites and 30 BDS-3 satellites jointly provide seven types of services to users. Specifically, for the entire planet, the system provides three services:
  Positioning, navigation and timing (PNT).
  Global short-message communication.
  International search-and-rescue (SAR) services.
  For the Asia-Pacific region, the system provides four additional services:
  Satellite-based augmentation.
  Ground-based augmentation.
  Precise point positioning.
  Regional short-message communication services.
  The system has been operating continuously and stably since commissioning, with the average value of satellite availability better than 0.99 and the average value of satellite continuity better than 0.999.
  PNT Service. As actually measured by the International GNSS Monitoring and Assessment System (iGMAS), the global horizontal positioning accuracy is about 1.52 meters, the vertical positioning accuracy is about 2.64 meters (B1C signal single frequency, 95% confidence), the velocity measurement accuracy is better than 0.1 m/s, and timing accuracy is better than 20 nanoseconds. The performance is better in the Asia-Pacific region.
  FIGURE 1 shows the number of visible BDS satellites worldwide at BDT 00:00 on Nov. 18, 2021. Among them, the number of visible BDS satellites exceeds 20 in some areas of the Asia-Pacific region.
  figure 1. Number of visible BDS satellites, elevation ≥5° (2021/11/18/00:00 BDT). (CREDIT: www.csno-tarc.cn)
  Global Short Message Communication Service. Trial service is provided through 14 medium-Earth-orbit (MEO) satellites for authorized users and low-orbit satellites, with a maximum single-message length of 560 bits, equivalent to about 40 Chinese characters.
  Search-and-Rescue Service. A COSPAS/SARSAT-compliant MEOSAR service is provided by six payloads deployed on six MEO satellites. A B2b signal-based Return Link Service (RLS) is provided through 24 MEO and three IGSO satellites, which have completed testing and verification and are in the process of coordination within the framework of COSPAS-SARSAT.
  Satellite-Based Augmentation Service. China’s Civil Aviation Administration is organizing satellite-ground integrated test and evaluation, and the positioning accuracy, alarm time, integrity risk and other indicators meet the requirements.
  Ground-Based Augmentation Service. Real-time centimeter-level and post-processing millimeter-level services are provided for industrial and public users, based on the regional network reference stations built in China.
  Precise Point Positioning Service. PPP signals are broadcast by three GEO satellites. The measured horizontal positioning accuracy is 0.24 m, the vertical positioning accuracy is 0.41 m (95% confidence), and the convergence time is less than 20 minutes.
  Regional Short Message Communication Service. The short-message communication function has been tested and verified for integration into public mobile phones; large-scale application is planned.
  Development of the Applications Industry
  Large-scale applications of BDS have entered a critical stage of liberalization, industrialization and internationalization. The overall output value of China’s satellite navigation and location-based service industry continued to grow in 2020, up to 403.3 billion yuan (US$63.2 billion), which is about 16.9% more than its value in 2019. In terms of BDS-3-enabled basic products, an industrial chain is gradually maturing, comprised of BDS/GNSS basic chips, modules, boards, antennas and other components.
  The certification and testing system of basic BDS products has been established and implemented. BDS is already supported by most mainstream chips. BDS is increasingly being integrated into the daily life of the general public. It is becoming the standard configuration for positioning functions of smartphones and other mass-market products.
  Smartphone manufacturers such as Xiaomi, Huawei, Apple and Samsung already support BDS. In the first three quarters of 2021, among all types of smartphones applying for online access in China, 72.3% supported positioning function based on BDS, accounting for 93.5% of the total sales volume. The BDS ground-based augmentation function has been introduced into smartphones to achieve high-precision positioning at the 1-meter level; lane-level navigation is being piloted in several cities in China.
  In terms of industrial applications, BDS has fully served multiple industries including transportation, public security, disaster relief, agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishing. It has accelerated the integration into electricity, finance, communications and other infrastructure. In particular, in the fight against COVID-19 through scientific and technological approaches, BDS-based precise positioning has facilitated the efficient supply and circulation of anti-epidemic materials.
  BDS-based solutions for land rights determination, precision agriculture and smart ports have served the economic and social development of countries in Asia, Eastern Europe and Africa, and BDS-based products have been applied in more than half of the world’s countries and regions.
  International Cooperation
  BDS has always adhered to the development concepts of openness, cooperation and resource sharing; actively carried out practical international exchanges and cooperation; and contributed to China’s peaceful use of outer space.
  Bilaterally, the Eighth Meeting of the China-Russia Project Committee on Major Strategic Cooperation in Satellite Navigation was held in October 2021. Both sides jointly formulated and signed the Roadmap for Cooperation in the Field of Satellite Navigation from 2021 to 2025, providing planning and guidance for China-Russia satellite navigation cooperation in the next five years. Also, China’s Satellite Navigation Office signed a memorandum of understanding on satellite navigation cooperation with the National Committee on Space Activities of the Republic of Argentina and the South African National Space Agency, and formally established a regular cooperation mechanism.
  BDS is gradually being integrated into international standards, and is steadily promoting ratification by international standards bodies, including in the civil aviation, maritime, SAR, mobile communications and electrotechnical fields. Several international standards supporting BDS have been released. The Chinese government has drafted a letter of commitment to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), stating that BDS will provide basic services free of charge to civil aviation users around the world. The International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA) has officially issued a standard that ratifies BDSBAS, so that global marine users can carry out applications based on it. The Third Generation Partnership Project has started the standardization of BDS-3’s B2a and B3I signals. In the detection standard for Indicating Radio Beacon Locator of the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission, BDS receivers and BDS-based SAR services will be supported.
  The Chinese government is steadily advancing the rule of law, attaching great importance to and comprehensively promoting the rule of law for satellite navigation. A legal system on BDS has been formed, consisting of national policies, industrial and local policies and regulations, and more. The legislative process of the Satellite Navigation Regulations of the People’s Republic of China has been actively promoted to ensure the healthy, rapid and sustainable development of the satellite industry. In May 2021, China issued a development report on the rule of law of BDS.
  Follow-Up Plan
  In the future, on the one hand BDS will ensure stable operation, while on the other hand it will focus on the development of backup satellites, and complete the production, state optimization and ground testing of backup satellites. Backup BDS-3 satellites with better performance will be launched as needed to further improve the reliability of the constellation. By adhering to the development concept of “BDS is developed by China, dedicated to the world and aiming to be first class,” carrying forward the BDS spirit of the new era of “independent innovation, open integration, unity of all, pursuit of excellence,” BDS will serve the world and benefit all humankind.
  Number of BDS-3 satellites in orbit: 30
  Signals broadcast: B1I, B3I, B1C, B2a, and B2b
  Yang Changfeng is chief architect of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System and a Chinese Academy of Engineering academician.
編輯:武中奇
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